The Collaborative Mendel Mendel's Paper: A Collaborative Hypertext
Section 6: The Second Generation of the Hybrids

Experiments in Plant Hybridization (1865)
by Gregor Mendel

The Second Generation From the Hybrids

Those forms which in the first generation exhibit the recessive character do not further vary in the second generation as regards this character; they remain constant in their offspring.

It is otherwise with those which possess the dominant character in the first generation. Of these two-thirds yield offspring which display the dominant and recessive characters in the proportion of 3:1, and thereby show exactly the same ratio as the hybrid forms, while only one-third remains with the dominant character constant.

The separate experiments yielded the following results:

For each separate trial in the following experiments 100 plants were selected which displayed the dominant character in the first generation, and in order to ascertain the significance of this, ten seeds of each were cultivated.

In each of these experiments a certain number of the plants came constant with the dominant character. For the determination of the proportion in which the separation of the forms with the constantly persistent character results, the two first experiments are especially important, since in these a larger number of plants can be compared. The ratios 1.93:1 and 2.13:1 gave together almost exactly the average ratio of 2:1. The sixth experiment gave a quite concordant results; in the others the ratio varies more or less, as was only to be expected in view of the smaller number of 100 trial plants. Experiment 5, which shows the greatest departure, was repeated, and then in lieu of the ratio of 60:40, that of 65:35 resulted. The average ratio of 2:1 appears, therefore, as fixed with certainty. It is therefore demonstrated that, of those forms which posses the dominant character in the first generation, two-thirds have the hybrid-character, while one-third remains constant with the dominant character.

The ratio of 3:1, in accordance with which the distribution of the dominant and recessive characters results in the first generation, resolves itself therefore in all experiments into the ratio of 2:1:1, if the dominant character be differentiated according to its significance as a hybrid-character or as a parental one. Since the members of the first generation spring directly from the seed of the hybrids, it is now clear that the hybrids form seeds having one or other of the two differentiating characters, and of these one-half develop again the hybrid form, while the other half yield plants which remain constant and receive the dominant or the recessive characters in equal numbers.

When you contribute a comment to MendelWeb you agree to a number of conditions that are outlined in a special notice. Before going further you must acknowledge that you agree to these conditions:

OK, I have read the notice at least once and I agree to the conditions.

What word should the hyperlink come from:

Write your annotation here:

Please tell us your name and what part of the world you're from (required):

Your e-mail address will appear along with your comment if you write it here (optional):

Please check the spelling of everything you've written, since MendelWeb will not run a spell-checker on the text.

Press to submit your annotation, or to erase what you've written.

uber Pflanzen-Hybriden Discussion Questions MendelWeb Notes Homework questions

MendelWeb was conceived and constructed by Roger B. Blumberg